Building a Bond Ladder

January 5, 2022

What is a bond ladder, and how does it work?

A bond ladder is a collection of separate certificates of deposit (CDs) or bonds that mature at various times. This method is intended to generate current salaries while reducing the risk of being exposed to swings in interest rates. Instead of purchasing bonds that are set to mature within the same year, you should acquire CDs or bonds that are planned to mature over a period of time that is staggered. Investors who spread out their maturity dates are less likely to attempt to time the market, which can be beneficial. It is possible for investors to weather interest rate swings by meeting objectives and reinvesting the income from aging bonds.

What are the key objectives of using a bond ladder to invest in bonds?

There are two basic objectives that a bond ladder may assist investors in achieving.

1. Manage the risk associated with interest rates.

Investors may avoid being tied to a single interest rate by varying the maturity dates of their investments. As the number of rungs on the ladder increases, the impact of interest rate variations becomes less noticeable as there are bonds expiring every year, quarter, or month, based on the number of ladder rungs. Once a bond matures, a buyer may choose to reinvest the principal in a fresh bond at the end of a bond ladder, often increasing their overall return. If interest rates have increased, they will profit from a new and larger interest rate, which will allow them to retain their position on the ladder. If interest rates ever drop, the bonds that were due to mature can be reinvested at reduced rates. While this might be a disappointment in the short term, your longer term bonds at the end of the ladder may have already locked in solid net  returns.

2. Maintain control over the financial flow.

Numerous bonds make payments twice per year on days that often match with their maturity period, allowing investors to create predictable monthly bond income by combining dividend payments with varied maturity cycles.

What is the process of creating a bond ladder?

The bond ladder itself is a rather simple structure to construct. When constructing a bond ladder, the total length of time, the spacing between maturities, and the kinds of securities are the most important variables. Bond ladders may be used to balance the demand for income with the requirement to manage interest rate risk in any interest rate environment, whether it is low or increasing.

Ladder Rungs:

Take the whole amount of money you intend to invest with the purpose of extending the ladder for the longest period of time feasible. For instance, a $100,000 investment in individual bonds may be divided into ten rungs of $10,000 investments each.

Additionally, having at least six rungs allows an investor to construct a ladder that generates revenue on a monthly basis throughout the year, which can be a significant advantage.


The length between rungs is defined by the amount of time that elapses between maturities of the individual bonds, which may vary from a few months to many years. In principle, the distance between each item should be about equal.

Bonds with longer maturities tend to have greater yields, whereas bond maturities that are shorter tend to have lower income and interest rate risk.


Just like a true ladder, investors may construct their ladders out of a variety of different materials, which are, in this case, various kinds of bonds or certificates of deposit. Aside from that, investors may want to take advantage of the possible tax benefits of municipal bonds, the credit guarantee provided by United States Treasury bonds, or the typically higher yields offered by investment-grade corporate bonds.

When constructing a bond ladder, it can be useful for investors to concentrate their efforts on higher-rated bonds. Lower-rated bonds, such as high-yield bonds, have a larger probability of default, and this might have a detrimental effect on the aim of consistent income and predictable value at maturity.

What is the procedure for using a bond ladder?

Bond laddering is a strategy in which you invest in a number of bonds with varying maturities. If you want to reinvest the money after each bond or CD expires, you may do so in fresh bonds with the lengthiest period you initially selected for your ladder.

If interest rates rise, you will have the opportunity to reinvest at greater yields. Even if interest rates decrease, you’ll have some bonds with greater returns that you can hold for the long run.

Here’s an illustration of how a ladder is used:

Perhaps you make a purchase of four bonds with delayed maturity dates. Your total yearly yield is 2.125 percent on a combined basis. When Bond A matures in two years, you may reinvest the funds in a new bond, allowing you to continue to build your ladder. The same procedure may be used when future bond maturities occur.


Bond income, although predictable, is not assured and is susceptible to call risks as well as the possibility of default on principal and interest payments. Using securities with lower ratings also increases this risk. For diversification, it is sometimes recommended to own a minimum of ten different stocks or types of assets.

Please remember that, although the thresholds for purchasing corporate and municipal bonds could be modest, there are often advantages to investing bigger sums in individual bonds, such as better liquidity. Exchange-traded funds (ETFs) or fixed income mutual funds could be a better option for investors with smaller sums of money to invest.

Masterworks is a fintech company democratizing the art market. Our investors are able to fractionally invest in $1mn+ works of art by some of the world's most famous and sought-after artists.